Taking a Team Approach to Retirement Savings

Now that it’s common for families to have two wage earners, many married couples accumulate assets in separate accounts. They might each have savings in an employer-sponsored plan and perhaps one or more IRAs as well.

Even when most of a couple’s retirement assets reside in different accounts, it’s still possible to craft a unified savings and investment strategy. Communication and teamwork are good for a marriage in general, and working together could help create a stronger financial future.

Mars and Venus

Research has consistently shown that men and women have different investment approaches. Individual strategies vary, of course, but in general men tend to be more aggressive and trade more frequently, while women tend to be more methodical and embrace a buy-and-hold strategy.1

Over the long term, women may be more successful investors — one study found that their returns outpaced men’s by about 0.4%, while another found a difference of 1.2%.2 But women do not invest as much or as early in their lives and may be overly cautious. A recent survey found that women keep more assets in cash than men do, which will result in the loss of purchasing power over time.3

Shared Strategies

These differences suggest that a married couple might have much to gain by discussing their goals and philosophies for savings and investments, and by considering their accounts holistically. This does not mean that every decision must be made together. But it could be helpful to look together at the larger picture.

Owning and managing separate portfolios allows each spouse to choose investments based on his or her individual risk tolerance. Some couples may prefer to maintain a high level of independence for this reason, especially if one spouse is more comfortable with market volatility than the other. Employing different investment strategies might also increase the diversification of family assets as long as the approaches are not completely contradictory.

On the other hand, coordinating investments might help some families build more wealth over time. For example, one spouse’s employer may offer a better match for employee contributions, so it might be wise to prioritize contributions to that plan in order to obtain the full match. One workplace plan might offer a broader and/or more appealing selection of investment options, while the offerings in another plan may be limited. With a joint strategy, both spouses agree on an appropriate asset allocation for their combined savings, and their contributions are invested in a way that takes advantage of each plan’s strengths while avoiding any weaknesses.

Whether you make investment decisions separately for individual accounts or share decisions for all of your accounts, keep in mind that retirement assets generally belong to both of you. You may benefit by talking as a couple with your financial advisor.

Asset allocation and diversification are methods to help manage investment risk; they do not guarantee a profit or protect against loss. Although there is no assurance that working with a financial professional will improve investment results, a professional who focuses on your overall financial objectives can help you consider strategies that could have a substantial effect on your long-term financial situation.

1–2) Investor’s Business Daily, July 16, 2018
3) Money, February 12, 2018

This information is not intended as tax, legal, investment, or retirement advice or recommendations, and it may not be relied on for the purpose of avoiding any federal tax penalties. You are encouraged to seek advice from an independent professional advisor. The content is derived from sources believed to be accurate. Neither the information presented nor any opinion expressed constitutes a solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security. This material was written and prepared by Broadridge Advisor Solutions. © 2019 Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc.

Roth 401(K)

What Is a Roth 401(k)?
The arena of employer-sponsored retirement plans has been dominated by 401(k) plans that are funded with pre-tax contributions, which effectively defers taxes until distributions begin. However, Roth 401(k) is funded with after-tax money just like a Roth IRA, allowing retirees to enjoy qualified tax-free distributions once they reach age 59½ and have met the five-year holding requirement.

It might be smart to invest in a Roth 401(k) if you believe that you will be in a higher tax bracket during retirement. This is always a possibility, especially if you end up with fewer tax deductions during your post-working years. On the other hand, if you expect to be in a lower tax bracket during retirement, then deferring taxes by investing in a traditional 401(k) may be the answer for you. If you have not been able to contribute to a Roth IRA because of the income restrictions, you will be happy to know that there are no income limits with a Roth 401(k).

Employers may match employee contributions to a Roth 401(k) plan, but any matching contributions must go into a traditional 401(k) account. That is, employer contributions and any earnings are always made on a pre-tax basis, and are taxable when distributed from the plan.

If an employer offers a Roth 401(k) plan, employees have the option of contributing to either the regular (pre-tax) or the Roth account, or even both at the same time. If you do not know which type of account would be better for your financial situation, you might split your contributions between the two types of plans. It’s important to note that in 2019, your combined annual contributions to a 401(k) plan cannot exceed $19,000 if you are under age 50, or $25,000 if you are 50 or older. These amounts are indexed annually for inflation.

If your employer offers a Roth 401(k) plan and allows in-plan Roth conversions, you can make transfers to a Roth 401(k) account at any time. Conversion is a taxable event. Funds converted are taxed as ordinary income in the year of the conversion.

Upon separation of service, you can roll over your Roth 401(k) assets to another Roth 401(k), a Roth 403(b), or a Roth IRA. Assets cannot be rolled over to a traditional 401(k) account. If you transition from an employer that offers a Roth 401(k) account to an employer that does not, your only option would be to roll the assets directly to a Roth IRA or to leave your money in your former employer’s plan (if allowed).

The required minimum distribution guidelines of a Roth 401(k) work like those of traditional 401(k) plans. You must generally begin taking distributions after reaching age 70½, either as a lump sum or on a required minimum distribution schedule based on your life expectancy. However, unlike traditional 401(k) withdrawals, Roth distributions would be free of federal income taxes.

If you see the advantages of having tax-free income in retirement, then you might consider a Roth 401(k). It allows you to contribute more annually than you could to an IRA, and the tax-free distributions won’t add to your income tax liability. Of course, before taking any specific action, you might want to consult with your tax professional.

The information in this newsletter is not intended as tax, legal, investment, or retirement advice or recommendations, and it may not be relied on for the ­purpose of ­avoiding any ­federal tax penalties. You are encouraged to seek advice from an independent professional ­advisor. The content is derived from sources believed to be accurate. Neither the information presented nor any opinion expressed constitutes a solicitation for the ­purchase or sale of any security. This material was written and prepared by Broadridge Advisor Solutions. © 2019 Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc.